## Announcements

• Midterm after a short lesson and the break
• Don't forget Assignment 9 due Tuesday!
• Don't forget Lab 5 due Friday

## Numbers, Operators and Precision Cont'd

### Assignment Operators

#### Shortcut Assignment Operators

• We can use additional operators to calculate values and assign them to the variable on the left all in one statement
• Known as shortcut assignment operators
• The general syntax is:
`variable op= expression;`
• Where op is one of the five arithmetic operators: `+``-``*``/``%`
• For example, the following two statements create the same result:
```x = x + 3;
x += 3;
```
• Shown below are the assignment operators with examples of how they are used:

#### Summary of Assignment Operators

Operator Description Example Equivalent To
`=` Assigns the value of the expression on the right to the variable on the left `x = 3`
`+=` Adds the expression on the right to the variable on the left `x += 3` `x = x + 3`
`-=` Subtracts the expression on the right from the variable on the left `x -= 3` `x = x - 3`
`*=` Multiplies the expression on the right to the variable on the left and saves the result in the variable on the left `x *= 3` `x = x * 3`
`/=` Divides the variable on the left by the expression on the right and saves the result in the variable on the left `x /= 3` `x = x / 3`
`%=` Calculates the remainder from dividing variable on the left by the expression on the right and saves the result in the variable on the left `x %= 3` `x = x % 3`

#### Increment and Decrement Operators

• Adding or subtracting one is a common operation in programming
• C++ provides arithmetic shortcuts for these operations with the increment and decrement operators
• The increment operator (`++`) adds 1 to a variable's value
• Pre-increment adds 1 before evaluating an expression
`++sum;`
• Post-increment evaluates the expression and then adds 1
`sum++;`
• The decrement operator works like the increments operator, except it subtracts 1 from the variable:
```--sum
sum--
```
• Pre- and post- increment matters when the operation is part of a larger expression
• For example, consider the code:
```int x = 5;
int y = x++;
cout << "x=" << x << " y=" << y;
```
• We may expect y to be 6 after this code executes
• Instead, y has the value of 5
• The reason is that `++` after a variable (post-increment) is equivalent to:
```y = x;
x = x + 1;
```
• On the other hand, `++` before a variable (pre-increment) is equivalent to:
```x = x + 1;
y = x;
```

#### Casting

Cast: change the data type of the returned value of an expression

• Recall that different data types are stored in different forms
• Sometimes you need to change from one form to another
• For example: arithmetic adding a `double` and an `int` value
• C++ will automatically cast one value to another
• Known as implicit casting or type coercion
• Programmers can also explicitly cast data types
• Explicit casting changes the data type for a single use of the variable
• Precede the variable name with the new data type in parentheses:
```(dataType) variableName
```
• The type is changed only for the single use of the value
• For example:
```double x = 2.99999;
x = (int) x;
cout << x << endl;
```
• The value of `x` is converted from type `double` to `int` before assigning the converted value to `x`
• However, `x` remains a type `double` and the cast only applies to a single use of `x`
• The above example shows a common use of casting -- removing the decimal part of a floating-point number
• Note that the decimal portion of the number is truncated and NOT rounded
• Decimal part is lost (discarded, ignored, thrown away)
• Another use is to convert an `int` to a `double` when dividing two int numbers and a decimal result is desired
• For example:
```double x = (double) 9 / 5;
cout << x << endl;
```
• Still another use is to prevent compiler warnings
• For example:
```double x = 2.3;
int n = x;
cout << n << endl;
```
• The above may cause a compiler warning with the settings we use:
`warning: converting to 'int' from 'double'`
• To remove the warning, we use a cast:
```double x = 2.3;
int n = (int) x;
cout << n << endl;
```
• This tells the compiler that you intended to convert from `double` to `int`

#### Example Application Using Casting:

 ```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ``` ```#include using namespace std; int main() { double input; cout << "Enter hours: "; cin >> input; int hours = (int) input; // prevents warning int minutes = (int) ((input - (int) input) * 60); cout << "In hours and minutes, this is " << hours << ":" << minutes << endl; return 0; } ```

#### Integer Overflow

• An integer is stored in a computer as a pure binary number: Image source: Dan Gookin
• The sign bit sets whether the number is positive (0) or negative (1)
• The other bits represent the value, in this case `123`
• There are only a finite set of numbers in an integer value
• What happens when an integer is too big for its type?
```int bigPlus = 2147483647;
cout << "Big number: ";
cout << bigPlus + 1 << endl;
int bigMinus = -2147483647;
cout << "Small number: ";
cout << bigMinus - 2 << endl;
```
• The number "wraps around" from the highest number to the lowest
• You must be careful that your program will not go beyond the range of its data types
• Can't sleep: from xkcd

#### More Integer Types

• To increase the range, C++ has the `long` data type
• Originally, the `long` data type was 32 bits while the `int` was 16 bits
• However, with the development of 32 bit computers, the `int` value was extended to 32 bits but the `long` was left at 32 bits
• Thus, at the present time, `int` and `long` are the same size on most computers
• In addition, C++ has `unsigned` integer types you can use to change the range
• Rather than integer ranges from -2147483647 to 2147483647, `unsigned int` ranges from 0 to 4294967295
• New to C++11 (a newer version of C++) is the type long long which is a 64 bit type.

#### Floating-Point Precision and Range

• Floating-point numbers are not exact representations of real numbers
• Rounding errors occur in repeated calculations
• Type double has about twice the precision of type float
• However, even type double can have rounding errors
```cout << setprecision(17);
cout << .8F + .1F << endl;
cout << .8 + .1 << endl;
```
• When floating point numbers get too large, they are set to `inf`
• For instance:
`cout << 2E38F + 2E38F << endl;`
• Similarly, when numbers are too small they are set to `0.0`

#### The Moral

• Integer and floating-point data types work well most of the time
• However, if we work with large positive or negative integers, we must be sure we do not exceed the range of the data type
• Also, floating-point numbers have limited precision
• When math operations are performed repeatedly, they can become less precise
• Thus we must be careful of precision when using floating-point numbers

## Activity 10.1: Prices (10pts)

• Find a partner for pair programming.
• Open up Eclipse and create a new projected named Prices with a file called price.cpp. Copy and paste the below code into it beneath the comment with your and your partner's names.
 ```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ``` ```#include #include using namespace std; int main() { string name; double price = 0; cout << "Enter the product name: "; cin >> name; cout << "Price of the " << name << ": "; cin >> price; // Insert new statements here cout << "Total price: \$" << price << endl; return 0; } ```
• Compile and run the starter program to make sure you entered it correctly.

When you run the program, the output should look like this:

```Enter the product name: iPod_Nano
Price of the iPod_Nano: 149.50
Total price: \$149.5
```

Note the format of the numbers output for the total price. We will address this formatting issue later in the exercise.

• Run the program again for a product with a very high cost, like a Boeing 777:
```Enter the product name: Boeing__777
Price of the Boeing_777: 212345678
Total price: \$2.12346e+08
```

Note the format of the numbers output for the total price. This format is called exponential notation. You may have encountered it in some of your math classes.

• Let us correct the formatting of the total price. Enter the following code before the statement that prints the total price:
```cout << fixed             // fixed notation, not scientific
<< setprecision(2);  // show 2 decimal places
```

These statements are referred to as the "magic formula" because they for C++ to output statements in a "standard" format. Note what each statement accomplishes.

• Compile and run your program again and verify the output looks like:
```Enter the product name: Boeing_777
Price of the Boeing__777: 212345678
Total price: \$212345678.00
```
• Let us add a constant that we will use later in our program. Enter the following code after the magic formula and before the statement that prints the total price:
```const int PERCENT = 100;
```

A constant variable (or constant) is a variable that cannot change after being assigned a value. Using a constant lets us avoid using a vague number.

• Now we will add sales tax to the price of the product. Enter the following code after the constant and before the statement that prints the total price:
```double taxRate = 0;
cout << "Enter sales tax rate (%): ";
cin >> taxRate;
double tax = price * taxRate / PERCENT;
price += tax;
```

Notice the last statement: `price += tax;`. This is an alternate way to code the statement: `price = price + tax;`.

• Compile and run your modified program and verify the output looks like:
```Enter the product name: iPod_nano
Price of the iPod_nano: 89.50
Enter sales tax rate (%): 9.5
Total price: \$98.00
```
• Now we will find the whole dollars and cents of the amount to demonstrate casting. Enter the following code after the statement that prints the total price and before the return statement:
```int dollars = (int) price;
cout << "In whole dollars: \$" << dollars << endl;
```

Notice the `(int)` in the first statement. This is known as a type cast or just cast

• Compile and run your modified program and verify the output looks like:
```Enter the product name: iPod_nano
Price of the iPod_nano: 89.50
Enter sales tax rate (%): 9.5
Total price: \$98.00
In whole dollars: \$98
```

#### Upcoming Assignments

• Assignment 9 due Tuesday at 9:20am
• Lab 5 due Friday

~Have a Great Evening!~