Welcome to Lesson 9!

Learning Objectives
By the end of today's class, you should know...
  • What are the 3 logical operators?
  • How do you test multiple conditions using logical operators?
  • How do && and || operate when:
    • both test conditions evaluate to true?
    • both test conditions evaluate to false?
    • one test condition evaluates to true and one to false?

Announcements

  • Midterm after a short lesson and the break
  • Don't forget Assignment 8 due Monday!
  • Don't forget Lab 5 due Friday!

Logical Operators

  • In certain situations, we may wish to use more than one test condition inside of an if statement.
  • To do so, we will need to chain the test conditions together using logical operators (either && or ||)
  • For example, recall our guessing game program:
        cout << "I'm thinking of a number between 1 and 10.\n";
    cout << "Can you guess it?\n\n";
    cout << "Enter your guess: ";
        
    cin >> guess;
        
    if (guess < 1 || guess > 10) { //if guess is < 1 OR guess > 10
        cout << "Invalid entry!";
    } else if (guess < 7) {
        cout << "Your guess is too low";
    } else if (guess > 7) {
        cout << "Your guess is too high";
    } else {
        cout << "*** Correct! ***";
    }

Review of Boolean Variables

  • Sometime we need to evaluate a logical condition in one part of a program and use it elsewhere
  • To store a condition that can only be true or false, we use a Boolean variable
  • Boolean variables are named after George Boole (1815-1864), a pioneer in the study of logic
  • We specify a Boolean variable using the bool type, which can hold just one of two values: true or false
    bool isCool = true;
    bool lies = false; 


Test Conditions and Boolean Values

  • Remember that test conditions always evaluate to true or false
    if (num > 0)
    
  • Thus we can use a boolean variable as a test condition
    bool isPositive = (num >= 0);
    if (isPositive)
    
  • Note that we do not need to add a relational expression to a boolean variable, like:
    if (isPositive == true) // avoid!
  • Since the boolean variable already evaluates to true or false, adding the == true is redundant
  • Likewise, we do not need to use:
    if (isPositive != false) // avoid!
  • If we want to reverse the test condition, we can use the not (!) operator
    if (!isPositive)
  • We can see the use of a boolean variable in the following example


Example Application Using a Boolean Variable

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15


#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
    double num;
   cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> num; bool isPositive = (num >= 0); cout << boolalpha << "The test evaluated to: " << isPositive << endl; if (isPositive) { cout << "The number was 0 or positive\n"; } else { cout << "The number was negative\n"; } }

Introducing &&, || and !

Logical operators and search engines video


Combining Test Conditions with Logical Operators

  • logical operator, or boolean operator, is an operator that treats operands as boolean values (true or false)
  • C++ has several logical operators, but we only need to use three to create any possible test condition
  • These three operators are andor and not, which are discussed below
  • These logical operators are traditionally written as && (and), || (or) and ! (not)

Truth Tables for AND, OR and NOT

&& (AND) Operator Truth Table
expr1
expr2
expr1 && expr2
ExampleResult
truetruetrue5 < 10 && 5 > 2true
truefalsefalse5 < 10 && 5 < 2false
falsetruefalse5 > 10 && 5 > 2false
falsefalsefalse5 > 10 && 5 < 2false
|| (OR) Operator Truth Table
expr1
expr2
expr1 || expr2
ExampleResult
truetruetrue5 < 10 or 5 > 2true
truefalsetrue5 < 10 or 5 < 2true
falsetruetrue5 > 10 or 5 > 2true
falsefalsefalse5 > 10 or 5 < 2false
not (!) Operator Truth Table
If expr is...Then ! expr is...ExampleResult
truefalse!truefalse
falsetrue!(5 < 2)true


Testing Multiple Conditions Using Logical Operators

  • Sometimes we need to test for multiple conditions using a single if statement
  • In this case, we will need to chain together the two conditions using a logical operator, either && or ||
  • Note that one either side of the logical operator there must be a stand alone test condition

if (age >= 18 && age <= 25) //Correct!!!

if (age >= 18 && <= 25) //No! Incorrect!!

  • For example, we want to test if an age is between 18 and 65
  • We need to test that both parts of are true: that the age is >= 18 AND that the age is <= 65

int age = 0;
cout << "Enter your age: ";
cin >> age;
if (age >= 18 && age <= 65)
{
    cout << "Adult!\n";
} else {
    cout << "Child, Teen or Older Adult!\n";
}


  • Another way to use logical operators to test the age is:
    int age = 0;
    cout << "Enter your age: ";
    cin >> age;
    if (age < 18 || age > 65)
    {
        cout << "Child, Teen or Older Adult!\n";
    } else {
        cout << "Adult!\n";
    }
    
  • Many people confuse && and || conditions, especially when learning about logical operators
  • A value lies between 18 and 65 if the value is at least 18 and at most 65
  • A value is outside that range if it is less than 18 or greater than 65
  • There is no golden rule; we have to think carefully and test our conditions

Parenthesis

  • Remember that a Boolean expression in an if statement must be enclosed in parenthesis
  • Thus, an if statement with && might look like:
    if ((guess != GUESS1) && (guess != GUESS2))
  • However, relational operators have a higher precedence than logical operators
  • Thus, we can remove the inner parenthesis without affecting the meaning:
    if (guess != GUESS1 && guess != GUESS2)
  • However, if using parenthesis is easier to understand then use the extra parenthesis


Activity 9.1: What's Your Generation? (10 pts)

  • There are 6 generations living in America, side-by-side, today.
  • Your program will determine to which generation your user belongs.
  • Find a partner for pair programming and open up a new file and name it generation.cpp.
  • To do so, you will need to take as input the year of his or her birth.
  • Then, you will need a series of test conditions (think if - else if - else) to determine the generation of your user.
  • You will also need to use logical operators (&&, ||, !).
  • Below is a chart with the range of birth years for each generation.
  • Note the double quotes around each generation's name. For full credit, you must include the " when you output the generation.
Years of Birth                    Generation
1900-1927                           "The Greatest Generation"
1928-1945                           "The Silents"
1946-1964                           "The Baby Boomers"
1965-1979                           "Generation X"
1980-1999                           "The Millennial Generation"
2000-2018                           "Generation Z"

  • Your goal is to prompt the user for his or her date of birth and then print out a message about which generation he or she belongs to.
  • To start, print the following message to the user:

    What's your generation?
  • Then, you will need a variable to store the user's year of birth:
int year_of_birth;
  • Next, prompt your user to enter his or her date of birth with a statement like the following:
Please enter the year of your birth: _
  • Subsequently, you will need 6 if and if else statements like the following:
if ( year_of_birth >= 1900 && year_of_birth < 1928)
{
    cout << "You belong to the \"Greatest Generation\"" << endl;
}
else if ( year_of_birth >= 1928 && year_of_birth < 1946)
{
    cout << "You belong to the \"The Silents\"" << endl;
}
//rest of your else ifs and your else clause go here
  • Important: Why are we using && here and not ||?
  • Finally, you will need to do some error checking of the user input.
  • If the user inputs a date that is either too high or too low, your program must print out the following message:
Invalid entry. Please enter a birth year in the range 1900 - 2018.
  • The above should go in your else clause
  • Make sure your output is identical to the sample output below before you submit.
  • When you are finished, upload to Canvas

What's your generation?
Please enter the year of your birth: 1926
You belong to the "Greatest Generation".

Alternately,

What's your generation?
Please enter the year of your birth: 2025
Invalid entry! Please enter a birth year in the range 1900 - 2018.

More Information on Logical Operators

Wrap Up
  • Find a partner and answer the questions from today's learning objectives

Upcoming Assignments

~Have a Great Weekend!~